The Kyoto Protocol’s clean development mechanism (CDM), the international market-based tool that incentivizes greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction projects in developing countries, has passed the 7,000 registered projects milestone.
The 7,000th project will capture and destroy biogas created at two livestock (pig and chicken) farms in Cebu, Philippines, reducing annual emissions by 48,000 tonnes; the equivalent of removing 10,000 passenger cars from the road each year. The project will also reduce air pollution and odour, reduce instances of mosquito-borne illnesses, such as dengue fever, and increase job opportunities for the local community.
Peer Stiansen,Chair of the CDM Executive Board said, “The Board will continue its efforts to make the CDM the best tool it can be to reduce emissions and spur development, but Parties must do their part and set ambitious emission reduction targets to incentivize climate action and these types of green growth projects.”
The CDM is currently challenged by low prices for the certified emission reductions (CERs) produced by its projects. Due to a confluence of factors, CER prices have dropped 90 per cent in the past year, causing project registration and CER issuances to decline.
“The CDM will continue without a doubt, despite the current challenges it faces,” said Mr. Stiansen. “What remains to be seen is what Parties will do now to support the mechanism they created, and to ensure it continues to thrive and improve as a tool to help countries meet their emission reduction targets.”
Meanwhile, Reliance Power announced that its 125- MW solar power project in Rajasthan has received approval for CERs under the CDM. "This is the world's largest Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) project ever registered with the Clean Development Mechanism Executive Board (CDM - EB)," the company said in a statement. The project is expected to generate about 2 million CERs over a 10 year crediting period.
The steam generating solar field uses Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector (CLFR) technology to capture solar energy and convert water to superheated steam. To produce large quantities of steam multiple Solar Steam Generators (SSGs) are required to be installed in parallel and each contains many mirrors. For the proposed project activity, each SSG will include mirrors that are mounted on reflector assemblies . The reflector assemblies are connected together, end to end, to form a row-segment. Each row-segment has motor drives to control mirror position. The row-segments are installed end to end to make one row that runs the entire length of the SSG. The mirrors focus sun light on a linear receiver. Each linear receiver consists of HCE (Heat Collector Element-Absorber Tubes) in an enclosure that runs the length of the mirror rows. The receiver enclosure has a tempered glass bottom through which the concentrated sunlight enters.
Above the glass are the absorber tubes and above the tubes is a reflector that collects sun light that may miss the tubes slightly and refocuses it onto the tubes. The outside of the reflector is insulated and then has a galvanized metal cover.
Water enters the SSG tubes at one end, travels the length of the SSG crosses over to return tubes and exits as superheated steam at the same end that it entered. As the water flows through the absorber tubes, it receives the solar energy and its temperature increases. When the temperature reaches the boiling point steam starts to form and a two phase (liquid & vapor) flow occurs in the tubes. As more heat is transferred through the tubes to the fluid, the liquid is vaporized to steam and then the steam temperature rises into the superheated region. This entire process is referred to as “once through steam generation”.
To control the rate of steam generation as well as steam pressure and temperature two control approaches are utilized. The flow rate of water entering each SSG tube is controlled by control valves and mirror position is controlled to vary the amount of sun light focused on the receiver. Steam leaving the SSG tubes is collected in a header (piping system) and transported to the steam turbine. Steam carrying pipe is insulated to minimize heat loss. The high pressure turbine exhaust steam will be reheated to ensure dry steam at the intermediate pressure turbine inlet. This reheating will be accomplished by using a small portion of the steam from the solar field